HP GK Notes -2 Mountain Ranges, Hills and Passes

In this post of HP GK, we will discuss basic information about Physiography of Himachal Pradesh. These HP Gk notes are very helpful to you from examination point of view. So let us start with some general information.

HP GK Notes

Himachal Pradesh is situated in the Northern Part of India. It is a Hill area having Natural Resources. It is among the famous tourist place of the country.

HP GK Notes - Physiography of Himachal Pradesh

The State is divided into Three Physiographic division from south to north:


The altitude of this zone lies between 350m to 1500m above the sea level. This range is also known as Shivalik Hills( Manak Parbat at an ancient time).  Shivalik means Tresses of Shiva.  The large area of this zone is at places separated by flat-bottomed valley covered with thick gravel and alluvium. These are called Duns. This zone covers the lower hill of Kangra, Hamirpur, Una, Bilaspur, Mandi, Solan and Sirmour.


The altitude of this zone gradually increases towards the Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal ranges. The soil of this zone is best for cultivating fruit and seed potatoes. It consists of Pachhad, Sirmour and upper area of district Kangra, Kkarsog and Chachiote tehsils of Mandi District, Upper hills of Shimla and upper parts tehsil church of Chamba district.

This zone consists of two mountain range:

  1. DHAULADHAR RANGE: Dhauladhar means Grayish White.It originates from North to Dainkund near Dalhousie in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. It is the outermost layer of inner Himalaya. This range starts from the Badrinath in Uttrakhand and lies at the bank of Satluj river at Rampur Bushahar, at the river Beas at Larji and at the river Ravi at the south west of Chamba. 
  2. PIR PANJAL RANGE: The Pir Panjal range lies at an average height of 5000m. The major area of this valley is in Chamba district. It divides the Kullu valley from the lahoul valley. The famous Rohtang pass is situated in this range.


This zone is also called Himadari. The altitude of this zone ranges from 4500m to 7000m.It separated Spiti river from Beas. It consists of Kinnaur, tehsil Pangi of Chamba and some area of Lahaul Spiti. Rainfall is very low and snowfall is very high in this zone. The famous Zasker range found in this range.

ZASKAR RANGE: It is an easternmost layer of Great Himalaya zone.It separates Kinnaur and Spiti from Tibet,Kashmir and Ladakh. Highest Peak Shilla lies in the Zaskar Range in Kinnaur district.

Passes in Himachal Pradesh:

Here we will discuss the famous passes in Himachal Pradesh.
  1. Baralacha Pass: It is situated at an altitude of 4890m in the Zanskar range. It connects Lahaul to Ladakh. Suraj Tal Lake is few kilometres away from this Pass. Baralacha means summit with crossroads. In ancient time, It was a part of the trade route.
  2. Borasu Pass: It is high mountain pass situated at an altitude of 5450M on the border of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh near China border. It divides Himachal from Uttrakhand. 
  3. Chansal Pass: this pass lies at top of the Chansel Peak which is the highest peak of Shimla district. It links Dodra Kwar and Rohru In Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh.
  4. Debsa Pass: It lies between Mountains of Kullu and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh at an altitude of 5360M.
  5. Shpki La Pass: The Satluj River enter India through this pass. It is located in the Kinnaur district. It is also a border post on India Tibet border.
  6.  Indrahar Pass: It is located in the Dhauladhar range of Himalaya. It is located at an altitude of 4342m above mean sea level. it has a very popular route for trekking from Dharamshala and also makes a border between Kangra and Chamba.
  7. Saach Pass: It is situated in Chamba district at an altitude of 4420M. It is situated in the Pir Panjal range. This pass is accessible from June till mid-October. It connects Chamba valley with Pangi Valley of Himachal Pradesh.
  8. Jalsu Pass: It is the easternmost pass of Dhauladhar range. It is at above 3425M. This route is famous among Himachali Gaddi.
  9. Kunzum Pass: It is located at an altitude of 4590M above sea level. This pass is famous in the Rohtang.This pass is the way to Lahaul. 
  10. Pin Parvati Pass: This pass is famous as Valley of Shadows. It is located at an altitude of 5320M above sea level and located in the Kullu-Spiti region of Himachal Pradesh.
  11. Rohtang Pass: This is the most popular pass from the tourism point of view in the state as well as the country. It connects Kullu valley with Lahaul Spiti valley and located at an altitude of 3978M above sea level. It is only open from June to September.
  12. Ruption Pass: It is situated in the Dhauladhar Range at an altitude of 4650M above sea level.It is situated across the Rupin River. 

If you like this post of HP Gk and wants more notes of Himachal Gk than Like our Facebook Page Deal India Exam for latest updates.

Join Our WhatsApp Group for Discussion - Click here   (Only for HP Candidates)
And to get our every new post Newsletter you can subscribe us by simply submitting your Email Id in given below box.
Any Query any suggestion please comment below-


Trending Posts

HPSSSB Hamirpur Latest Vacancy 2019: 1700+ Posts Apply Now

HPSSSB Hamirpur Exam Dates 2018 for Written Test: Check Here

HPSSSB Recruitment 2019 Total 1694 Posts: How to Apply Step by Step